[1] This is referring to the dual system of politics and religion.

[2] A Wheel-wielding Monarch (cakravartin) is the de facto ruler of the entire universe, bring all under their control single-handedly. They tend to govern the world system in accordance with the spiritual and or universal law, the dharma. For more information, please refer to The Princeton Dictionary of Buddhism. 

[3] zhabs drung 01 ngag dbang rnam rgyal, BDRC P509

[4] phyogs las rnam par rgyal ba

[5] dpal ldan 'brug pa phyogs las rnam rgyal