[1] ārya prajñāpāramitāratnaguṇasaṃcayagāthā

[2] According to Buddhist cosmology, the cycle of the world system consists of four periods: 1. eon of formation (chags pa'i bskal pa, vivartakalpa), 2. eon of abiding (gnas pa'i bskal pa, vivartasthāyikalpa), 3. eon of dissolution ('jig pa'i bskal pa, saṃvartakalpa), and 4. eon of nothingness (stong pa'i bskal pa, saṃvartasthāyikalpa). The Abhidharmakośabhāṣya (Chos mngon pa'i mdzod kyi bshad pa), attributed to the famous master Vasubhandu (c. 4th–5th CE), states that each of the four eons consists of twenty intermediate eons (bar bskal pa, antarakalpa). This initiatory section of the text describes the cycle of these four eons. For more information see: The Princeton Dictionary of Buddhism 2014: kalpa.

[3] yid rnam par dwangs pa

[4] snod

[5] A three-thousandfold world system is the largest universe or cosmological container capable of containing upwards of a billion world systems each with their own central Mt. Sumeru and geological and continental structures. For more information see: The Princeton Dictionary of Buddhism 2014: trisāhasramahāsāhasralokadhātu

[6] rnam par srub byed kyi rlung

[7] kun tu khyab byed kyi rlung

[8] rtsub 'gyur gyi rlung yam

[9] rnam par sdud byed kyi rlung

[10] smin byed me'i rlung

[11] 'byed byed rlung gi rlung

[12] Yojana - An ancient Indic measurement of distance said to be the distance that a pair of yoked oxen can travel in a single day. There are various modern measurements estimating this distance ranging from four to ten miles. For more information see: The Princeton Dictionary of Buddhism 2014: yojana.

[13] zhi ba gsal dag

[14] 'byed sdud kyi rlung

ENDNOTES